6.3. Sample preparation

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Due to the relatively small amount of microplastics, we cannot measure the sample directly, and other organic residues present in biological samples may also interfere with the measurement, so prior sample preparation is required. The type of sample preparation depends on the subsequent analytical method; thermal methods usually do not require further sample preparation after physical separation, solid samples can be measured directly, but spectroscopic methods require additional extraction and purification steps [189], [190], [191]. To assess the efficiency of these steps and the effect of the chemicals used on microplastics, it is recommended to use a positive control with known structure, size, and amount during sample preparation. For each polymer type, knowing the recovery rate of the positive control can help in selecting the most appropriate sample preparation method [10].
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